With production scale one would expect it to be much cheaper.

Question: Are your fibre type solar cells cost competitive with regular solar cells?

Question: When you pull the silicon/silica through the crucible, how do you prevent the interface lauer from mixing with the Si?

Seeing more is really valuable, taking short courses and getting other inputs from new places.

Question: Should Master students at NTNU stay put, or try to explore other Universities as well?

Reduced waste from avoiding MBE processing is an advantage of in-fiber lasers.

Although Ursula has been having a lot of fun, there's a lot of work behind if and she thanks every she's been collaborating with and everyone that’s been of great help.

Spintronics is beyond Ursulas paygrade.

Ursula has a few minutes left, and she is using them!

Adding Indium looked ugly to begin with. But later, annealing seems to make a difference.

Light emission inside the fibers, exciting! With the reflector, are we smelling an in-fiber laser in the air?

History lesson: Liquid phase epitaxy was a big deal back in the 60s-70s

By utilizing spikes in the fiber, an optical Bragg grating can act as a reflector inside the fiber.

Moving beyond silicon, one might find a tunable band gap in a SiGe alloy.

One person among the audience knows what morse code is.

Does anybody know what morse code is???

Ursula, like Sir Fraser, admits that playing in the lab is important.

"Physics gets more interesting as you push things harder"

Using the CO2 laser they could easily observe the melting point of Si in the fiber through black body radiation.

If you pay attention during random lab visits, interesting things can happen!

By assembling the fibers you can create "wafers" with only 10% Si

How would you go further with fiber solar cells?

Low purity*

They were able to demonstrate glass fiber solar cells with impure Si.

First slide skip of the day!

Fiber drawing: Start with a lump of quartz, use Si rod (several intermediate steps, baddabing-baddabom) and draw the fiber from the crucible.

Optical fiber technology is proof that it is possible to use Si optical fibers in a scaled-up process.

Wasn't interested in chemical methods. And thus went about it with top-down technology.

By requiring lower purity, the energy spent making the expensive Si ingots can be greatly reduced.

To make these single crystal highly purified materials, required high amounts of energy.

By creating small fingers of Si, the pn-junction can be achieved with a much smaller amount of Si and a lower purity is required.

Moving from ZnO to Si, she took the step to a well-known material system.

Wanted to continue her work in Solar Energy.

Ursula has had experience working with optical materials, solar energy and ZnO nanostructures.

Who knew that small particles would be termed nanoparticles in the future!

Ursula starts by referring to the historical background.

Please welcome on stage, Ursula Gibson